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A Comprehensive Guide to Hookworm in Dogs

Hookworm is a parasitic condition that can be fatal for puppies or dogs with underlying health conditions. In today's post, our Davidson County veterinarians delve into the unsavory topic of hookworm in dogs and how you can protect your four-legged friend against this common parasite.

What is hookworm in dogs?

Hookworms are intestinal parasites with hook-like mouthparts that are commonly seen in both cats and dogs. Although they are only about 1/4" - 3/4" in size once they latch onto your pet's intestine they can ingest surprisingly large amounts of blood. If your pet is infected with a significant number of hookworms they could develop inflammation of the intestine or anemia.

Hookworm is most often seen in warm, moist environments and in pets that live in poor conditions involving overcrowding or poor sanitation. That said, dogs that frequently spend time in parks or play areas with other dogs are also at high risk of encountering this parasite.

How did my dog get hookworm? 

Hookworm infections are caused when your unprotected dog comes in contact with the parasite. More specifically there are four main ways that dogs become infected with hookworm:

  • Unborn puppies can contract hookworms through the mother's placenta in utero.
  • Once born, puppies can contract hookworms through their infected mother's milk.
  • Your dog could easily ingest hookworm larvae by sniffing at contaminated poop or soil, or when grooming their feet.
  • Larvae can penetrate your dog's skin leading to infection.

What is the lifecycle of a hookworm?

There are three stages in the hookworm lifecycle: egg, larvae, and adult.

  • The microscopic eggs are laid by the adults within an infected pet. The eggs are then passed through the feces, where they hatch into larvae and contaminate the environment.
  • The larvae are able to survive for weeks or even months before infecting an unsuspecting dog.
  • Once the larvae make their way into your pup's body they migrate to the intestine, where they mature into adults and lay eggs - starting the cycle all over again.

How can I tell if my dog has hookworm?

Intestinal upset is the primary symptom of hookworms in dogs. Other signs of hookworm in dogs includes:

  • Pale gums
  • Generalized weakness
  • Significant (unexplained) weight loss
  • Bloody diarrhea
  • Dull and dry coat
  • Failure of puppy to grow properly
  • Skin irritations (especially around paws)
  • Coughing

If your dog is showing any of the signs of hookworms listed above, contact your vet right away. It is not uncommon for young puppies to die from severe hookworm infections.

Diagnosing Hookworm in Dogs

Hookworms are easy to diagnose through a fecal flotation test, in other words signs of hookworm can be spotted in your dog's poop.

Your vet will request that you bring in a fresh stool sample from your dog. The stool will be mixed with a solution so that any eggs of the hookworms in the poop will float to the top of the solution where they can easily be spotted.

However, this test is only accurate once the worms have matured enough to begin producing eggs. Unlike some other worms seen in dogs, you will not typically see hookworms in your dog's poop because the worms stay securely latched onto your pet's intestinal lining until the condition is treated.

It takes 2-3 weeks for worms to reach maturity and begin producing eggs, for this reason, fecal floats may not be accurate in diagnosing hookworms in very young puppies.

Treating Dog Hookworm

A class of drugs called anthelmintics can be used to eliminate hookworms. These medications are typically given orally and rarely produce side effects. That said, these medications are only effective at killing adult hookworms so it will be necessary to repeat treatment 2-3 weeks following the first treatment.

If your dog is suffering from severe anemia due to hookworms, a blood transfusion may be necessary to save your dog's life.

Humans & Hookworm

Lying on infected ground can allow the hookworm larvae to begin burrowing into the skin leading to a condition called 'ground itch'.

In some rare cases, hookworm larvae can penetrate and damage internal organs including the eyes, which can cause blindness and complications. Good bathing and hygiene habits can help to prevent hookworm infections in people.

Protecting Your Dog Against Hookworm Infection

There are a number of key approaches when it comes to preventing the spread of hookworms in dogs:

  • Puppies should be dewormed at approximately 2-3 weeks of age, and if symptoms occur.
  • Nursing female dogs should be dewormed when their puppies are also dewormed.
  • Always clean up after your dog when at the park or out on walks, and keep your yard free of dog waste.
  • Be sure to wash your hands frequently when around your dog, or after cleaning up dog waste. Also ensure that your children wash their hands frequently.
  • Keep your dog up-to-date on their parasite prevention. Many products formulated to prevent heartworm will also help to prevent hookworm. Speak to your vet to learn more about the right parasite prevent for your canine companion.

Note: The advice provided in this post is intended for informational purposes and does not constitute medical advice regarding pets. For an accurate diagnosis of your pet's condition, please make an appointment with your vet.

Protect your pup against hookworm. Speak to our vets at Thomasville Veterinary Hospital to find out about the best parasite prevention methods for your four-legged friend. Contact our Davidson County vets today to book an appointment.

Two small dogs running side by side in a park. Dog on the left has a red ball in their mouth. Trees in the background.

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